Pronation Guide

Pronation is part of the natural movement of the human body and refers to the way your foot rolls inward for impact distribution upon landing. Understanding your pronation type can help you find a comfortable running shoe.

Underpronators (supinators) need a lot of cushioning to avoid strong impact
Neutral pronators can wear a wide variety of shoes
Overpronators should look for support or structured cushioning shoes


UNDERPRONATION

How Your Foot Contacts the Ground: outer side of the heel hits the ground at an increased angle with little or no normal pronation, causing a large transmission of shock through the lower leg.

Push Off: pressure on smaller toes on outside of foot.

Considered Injuries: plantar fasciitis, shin splints, ankle strain.

Foot type: high arches.

NEUTRAL PRONATION

How Your Foot Contacts the Ground: foot lands on outside of the heel, then rolls inward (pronates) to absorb shock and support body weight

Push Off: even distribution from the front of the foot.

Considered Injuries: less likely due to effective shock absorption, but neutral runners are not immune to injury.

Foot Type: normal-size arches

OVER PRONATION

How Your Foot Contacts the Ground: foot lands on outside of heel, then rolls inward (pronates) excessively, transferring weight to inner edge instead of ball of the foot

Push Off: big toe and second toe do majority of the work

Considered Injuries: shin splints, plantar fasciitis, bunions, heel spurs

Foot Type: low arches or flat feet


How to determine your Pronation type

Wear patterns won’t provide the full picture of gait analysis, but they can give additional clues about the impact on your feet. This can give you an idea of where you may need extra support and cushioning in your running shoes.

UNDERPRONATOR

Outside of your running shoes show the most wear If you put your running shoes on a flat surface, you may notice a slight outward tilt

NEUTRAL PRONATOR

Soles of your running shoes show wear in an S-shaped pattern, from the outer (lateral) heel to the big toe.
If you put your shoes on a flat surface, you may not notice any tilt

OVER PRONATOR

Extra wear on the inside of the heel and under the ball of the foot, especially the big toe If you put your shoes on a flat surface, you may notice an inward tilt


UNDERPRONATION

Cushioned Running Shoes

As underpronators (also called supinators) tend to be susceptible to shock-related injuries where you should choose a neutral running shoe with plenty of cushioning, for example, the GEL- Cumulus®.

Focused on midsole cushioning for extra shock absorption

Cushioning along outside of running shoe to counter outward roll of foot

Cushioning in the heel

Flexible shoes help evenly distribute impact

NEUTRAL PRONATION

Neutral running shoes

When you have a normal pronation pattern you can run in a wide variety of shoes, but specialized neutral running shoes offering cushioning and support are most suitable. The GEL-Nimbus® is the leading cushioning model for neutral runners.

Neutral cushioned shoes promote natural foot motion

Beginners may want to start with a cushioning shoe for support

Some runners may like natural running shoes that provide a feeling of more ground contact

OVER PRONATION

Stability Running Shoes

Overpronators need extra support, structured cushioning, and stability. The GEL-Kayano® is a leading structured cushioning shoe.

Stability running shoes help distribute the impact of running more effectively to minimize pronation

Medial post support, sometimes extended through to the heel

Firm midsoles provide arch support * For severe overpronators, you may want to consider a motion control shoe with extra cushioning

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